‘Parenting’ Category

Basic Information about Bedwetting

Bedwetting also known as sleepwetting is medically referred to as nocturnal enuresis. It is urinating unknowingly during sleep at an age when one s...


Bedwetting also known as sleepwetting is medically referred to as nocturnal enuresis. It is urinating unknowingly during sleep at an age when one should be able to control one's bladder and bowel movement. Bedwetting among children of certain age is normal and should not call for any concern. It is commonest urologist complaints from parents. It is not a physical or emotional problem but just a development delay. However, it becomes a problem when it continues to a certain age. Such cases are very rare. On estimate, only about 5% to10% of cases of bedwettings results from medical conditions.


Bedwetting is basically of two types, namely, primary bedwetting and secondary bedwetting. Primary bedwetting abbreviated as PNE is the type of bedwetting that occurs when a child has not stayed dry for a prolonged period of time. It is the commonest type and may not require medical attention. Secondary bedwetting occurs when a child or an adult starts wetting the bed at night after staying dry for a long time.  Secondary bedwetting can be caused by some medical condition such as bladder infection. It can also be caused by emotional stress.


As it has been said above, primary bedwetting does not call for a hospital visit. However, it will become a medical problem when a child continues to urinate involuntarily when sleeping at night when the child has reached an age when he is supposed to stop urinating or when he is supposed to sleep without being waken up and taken to the toilet to pee. 


It has been discovered through studies that nocturnal enuresis can as a result of side effect of antipsychotic drugs. Certain diet may also create favorable condition for nocturnal enuresis. Thus, parents should mind the type of food they give their little ones. If a child suffers from constipation after eating a particular food, that food should not be given to the child again because it can make him or her to suffer from bedwetting.


Medical practitioners have different opinion regarding when a child should be able to control his or her bladder during night sleep or should be able to remain dry throughout the night. However, it is a common opinion that a child as from the age of 4 to 5 years should be able to control his bladder during sleep at night. This is the time to diagnose primary enuresis. It is also the age most insurance companies used for PNE. Based on this opinion, a child is said to have primary enuresis when he or she persistently bed-wet during sleep when there is no any known medical, neurological anomaly or urological problems.


On the contrary, some medical personnel are of the opinion that primary bedwetting should be diagnosed when a child has turned 7 years and still bed-wets regularly during night sleep. For these medical practitioners, this is the time primary enuresis can be seen as a clinical problem.


For psychologists, nocturnal enuresis is diagnosed when a child of 5 years and above bed wets at least twice per week for three consecutive months without suffering from any medical condition or taking any medication that may induce such condition.


Medications and Treatment Procedure of Burns


There is the tendency for some people especially uneducated parents to take burn less seriously. But burns can give rise to infection which can lead to the death of the patient. If your child has burn and you leave it untreated, the chances of the child getting infected with tetanus is very high and such deadly bacteria can kill the patient if it is not treated. Burn does not just cause pain and anxiety, it can also give rise to emotional disturbances and trauma especially if the patient will be disfigured or have scares after recovering.

So, there is a need for quick medical action to be taken to reduce the damage to the patient. Patients with severe burns that disfigure or change their appearance may also require psychological and social support in order to be able to cope with their predicament. Below are some medications to be given to people with burn to reduce their pain and facilitate their healing process. However, these medications should not be administered indiscriminately. You should follow the instruction of your doctor.


·        Antimicrobial ointments: these ointments are applied on the affected area to prevent the burn from getting infected. As implicit from the name, the medications reduce the action of bacteria or microorganisms from the wound or even kill them. This will make the burn to decay. Typical examples of such medications are sulfadiazine, silver nitrate, mafenide and povidone-iodine. For first aid treatment, you should apply bacitracin to the wound.

·        Antibiotics: your doctor may deem it wise to give you some antibiotic especially if the wound has been infected. They can also be administered if there is a high risk of the wound becoming infected. The antibiotics which are normally administered when the portion of body affected is very large will prevent the wound from getting infected.   Typical examples of antibiotics to be administered are oxacillin, gentamicin, mezlocillin and others. It is left for your doctor to determine which antibiotics are most suitable for your case.

·        Pain relief medications: burns as you know cause serious pains to their victims. People with burns are given pain relief medications in order to reduce the pain. A good pain relief medication to be given if the burn is very severe is acetaminophen with morphine, codeine or meperidine.

Note that patients with severe burns may be given anabolic steroid like oxandrolone in order to reduce healing time of the wound.


Severe wounds such as third and fourth degree burns may require surgery such as debridement and skin grafting. Skin grafting is a type of surgical procedure in which a piece of skin is sewn over the burn. Before this procedure is carried out, the dead tissues have to be removed first through a medical procedure known as debridement. The piece of skin to be used for the surgery is obtained from an animal like pig or from a donor or a part of the patient’s body. If real skin cannot be obtained, artificial skin can be used for skin grafting. After the surgery, the look of the skin or affected area can be improved through cosmetic surgery.